11. 習慣領域之研究—一個教育的觀點 pp.193-205 — 黃漢昌

摘要     

「習慣領域」 (Habitual Domains,簡稱HD) 一詞是游伯龍教授所創,在深入考察人的心智、行為與決策關係之後,他發現:任何個人、團體都存在其「習慣領域」,「習慣領域」影響人的感受、思維、抉擇與行動,不但是個體,甚至是企業、政黨、國家成敗的關鍵,他相信:「命好不如習慣好」,認為:「沒有好的習慣,事業很難成功;沒有壞的習慣,事業很難失敗。」(游伯龍,1998:頁46)他積極推廣「習慣領域」學說,教導人建立良好的習慣領域,並不斷推擴,期盼人人都能獲得成功、智慧與喜悅。      「習慣」與「人」關係密切,乃眾所皆知,所謂「性格決定命運,習慣造就一生」,「習慣」能造就甚至決定人的成敗,並非新論,但「習慣領域」學說確有其「集大成」的特色:對於各種有用的義理、方法、研究成果,評判地選擇;對於看似對立的主張,辯證地予以消融;不只傳授「成功」的處事方法,更教導「智慧」的做人道理,融會形下之「器」與形上之「道」,其對人的「主體性」 (subjectivity)之尊重,尤是一大特色,與坊間一般所謂「致勝術」,大異其趣。       由於「習慣領域」涉及人的成長與社會的改善,與教育的關係極為密切,而其學說內容兼具實用與哲理,是值得理解、深究、推廣的學說,本論文對「習慣領域」的探討,主要研究問題如下:(1). 「習慣領域」的意涵為何?(2). 「習慣領域」的特性為何?(3). 「習慣領域」在教育上應如何實施?       根據筆者研究,「習慣領域」具有並存、遍在、潛隱、系統、可變等特性。「習慣領域」學說旨在發展個人、改善社會,與教育關係密切。本文從教育觀點,詮釋「習慣領域」學說的內容要旨;其次探討「習慣領域」在教育上之施用,從「存在現象學」與「多元智能」角度,設計「五階段、兩循環」模式,試圖建立「習慣領域」之課程模式。筆者相信:「習慣領域」可以發展成富有台灣特色的教育哲學。關鍵詞:習慣領域,覺醒,實踐,自由,多元智能  

A Study on Habitual Domains—the Viewpoint of Education

Hang-Chang Huang

Abstract     

The concept of Habitual Domains (HD) was first introduced by professor Po-Lung Yu, who was the C. A Scupin Distinguished Professor at the University of Kansas in the U.S. He is now a Distinguished professor at NCTU in Taiwan. Having studied the relations between the human being’s mind, behavior and decision making for a long time, he finds that HD exists both in the individual and the groups. HD shows immense influence not only on one’s feeling, thinking, decision making and action, but also on the success of an industry, a political party, and a nation. So he believes that improving good habitual domains is much important than good fortune. He states that it is difficult for a firm to succeed without having a good HD. Without a bad HD, it is difficult for a firm to fail. (Po-Lung Yu, 1998: 46) Yu advocates the teaching of HD. He hopes that everyone can be successful, wise, and happy, though one’s continuing developing good HD.      Just as the old saying, old habits die hard. Some Chinese believe that one’s character determines one’s destiny, and that one’s habits define one’s life. The habits of a man has definite influences on one’s life is not a new finding. But HD Theory surely is not a collection of old sayings. HD theory is critical and dialectic. It teaches one not only to be successful but also to be wise. In addition, Professor Yu shows high respect for the subjectivity of human being, which makes HD theory more humane and unique.      HD theory concerns both the developments of the individuals and the improvements of the societies. Both refer to education. This article aims to study:(1). What is the definition of Habitual Domains?(2). What are the characteristics of Habitual Domains?(3). How to put Habitual Domains Theory into practice in education?      This study finds that the characteristics of Habitual Domains are: co-existent, general, hidden, systematic and changeable. HD Theory can be utilized in the practice of existential phenomenology and multiple intelligence. A model of “five stages and two cycles” is recommended. The author suggests HD Theory should be applied to the education system in Taiwan.

Key words: Habitual Domains, consciousness, praxis, freedom, Multiple Intelligence. 

HD Angel

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